Toyota way and kaizen | Operations Management homework help

Techniques companies use to learn from their mistakes. Do you know of any processes in place within companies to accomplish this? Are there any management methodologies which use this step (or something like it) in their curriculum (besides this course)?

Please refer to The Toyota Way textbook and any examples provided in your response.  

PLUS

Types of Kaizen events a company can host. Which (if you had to choose) would be the most frequent event to complete?