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In your Week Three assignment, please answer the following questions:
The length of your response should be sufficient to answer each question fully
- Define the term case-control study, describing how cases and controls are selected. Compare and contrast case-cross control studies with respect to their specific applications. Using the textbook, list some examples of case-control and cross-sectional studies.
- Describe the advantages and disadvantages of each of the following types of controls in a case-control study:
- Hospital cases
- The association between job-related exposure to welding fumes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was explored in a case-control study. The following data were reported for 399 COPD patients: 37 currently employed as welders; the remainder had no occupational exposure. Among 800 controls, 48 were employed as welders. Set up a 2 by 2 table and calculate the OR (odds ratio) between welding and COPD.
- Why would you exclude women who cannot develop the disease as controls in a case-control study of gynecologic cancer?
- The following ORs are reported for several hypothetical examples. Give your interpretation of the results, assuming all results are statistically significant unless otherwise specified.
- OR (low-fat diet and colon cancer) + 0.6
- OR (aerobic exercise and dental caries) + 1 (not significant)
- OR (exposure to side-stream cigarette smoke and lung cancer) + 1.3
- OR (infectious disease of the pelvis and ectopic [tubal] pregnancy) + 3.0
- A random-digit dialed survey conducted in the City of Long Beach, California, reported that a greater proportion of nonsmokers endorsed a ban on smoking in alcohol-serving establishments than did smokers. What type of study design was this?
- An abrupt drop in mortality due to a specific cause is observed from one year to the next. Identify at least three possible reasons for such a change.